- One of the most common mistakes that even highly experienced practitioners make is to act as if the assumptions of Black-Scholes (lognormal, continuous distribution of returns, no transactions costs, etc.) mean that we can always arbitrarily assume the underlying grows at the riskfree rate r instead of a subjective guess as to its real drift Î¼. But this is not quite accurate.
**The insight from the Black-Scholes PDE is that the price of a hedged derivative does not depend on the drift of the underlying. The price of an unhedged derivative, for example, a naked long call, most certainly does depend on the drift of the underlying.**

- Let's say you are naked long an at-the-money one-year call on Apple, and you will never hedge. And suppose Apple has very low volatility. Then the only way you will profit is if Apple's drift is positive; suppose Apple has very low volatility. Then the only way you will profit is if Apple's drift is positiveâ€¦if it drifts down, your option expires worthless. But if you hedge the option with Apple shares, then you no longer care what the drift is. You only make money on a long option if volatility is higher than the initial price of the option predicted.

**the drift term of the underlying only disappears when your net delta is zero. In other words, an unhedged option cannot be priced with no-arbitrage methods**

Â